fig. 3: Dimensions of the MD
Halteplatte = mounting plate
Haltebereich = mounting area

fig. 4: The different areas of the MD. With playback-only MD the TOC is included in the startup area. UTOC and recordable area do not apply.
Einlaufbereich = startup area
UTOC-Bereich = UTOC area
Auslaufbereich = end area
Programmbereich = program area
aufzeichenbarer Bereich = recordable area
Musikdaten = music data

fig. 5: enlarged cross-section of an MD
Schutzlack = coating varnish
reflektierende Schicht = reflecting layer
Plattengrundkörper aus Polycarbonat = disk body from polycarbonate

fig. 6: layers of a recordable MD
Schutzlack = coating varnish
reflektierende Schicht = reflecting layer
magnetische Schicht = magnetic layer
dielektrische Schicht = dielectric layer
Polycarbonatträger = polycarbonate carrier

fig. 7: diagram of a MD recorder
Plattenantriebsmotor = disk motor
magnetischer Aufzeichnungskopf = magnetic recording head
Magnetkopfantrieb = magnetic head drive
Adreßdecoder = address decoder
Linse = lens
optischer Abtaster = optical scanner
Vorschubmotor = positioning motor
HF-Verstärker = HF amplifier
Steuerung... = shock resistant memory control
Systemsteuerung = system control
Audiodatenkompression... = audio data compression...
Anzeige = display
Bedientasten = control buttons
16 Bit A-D-Wandler = 16 Bit anlaogue-digital-converter
16 Bit D-A-Wandler = 16 bit DAC
Audioeing. = audio input
Audioausg. = audio output

fig. 8: principle of the anti-skip buffer. Stored data is read in bursts and written into the memory until it is full.
Daten = data
1-Mbit-Speicher = 1 Mbit memory

fig. 9: reading in bursts
Decodierung = decoding
Zeit = time
Auslesen = read
Wartestellung = idle position

fig. 10: After the interference caused by an external shock has seized, the last correctly read spot is found and reread.
Zeit = time
Stoß! = shock!

fig. 11: guiding groove of the recordable MD. Lateral deflections are superimposed over the spiral for the timecode.
Laserstrahl = laser beam
Führungsrille = guiding groove
Plattengrundkörper = disk body

fig. 12: Example for the layout of the TOC of a user recording of an MD
Innendurchmesser... = inner diameter of the recording area
Außendurchmesser... = outer diameter...
vor der Bearbeitung = before editing
Adressen = addresses
Einlaufbereich = startup area
Musikdaten = music data
Nr. des Aufzeichnungsteils = No. of part of recording
Auslaufbereich = end area
Inhalt = contents
Das Anwender... = The UTOC contains the no. of the recording as well as the according addresses
Entfernen... = removing a part when editing
gelöscht = erased
verfügbar = available
Nach dem... = After removing part 3, parts no. 4, 5, 6 are simply changed to 3, 4, 5. E F is available for a new recording.

fig. 13: CD ROM mode 2, the format for data recording by the CD standard. Here each sector has a complete address.
Kopf = head
Adresse = address
frei verfügbar... = available for data

fig. 14: data format of the MD. When recording, sound groups are assembled from compresed audio data, bundled to sectors and from these in turn clusters are built.
Kanal = channel
Soundgruppe = sound group
Verbindungssektoren... = linking sectors with parity data (with read-only MD used for subcode data)
Subcodesektoren = subcode sectors
Daten = data
Kopf = head
Zusatzsektoren = additional sectors

fig. 15: optical scanner scanning the pit track of an MD (or CD)
wenig Licht reflektiert = few light reflected
viel... = much...

fig. 16: basic construction of an optical scanner suitable for scanning a pit track as well as a megnetooptic recording
Spur = track
Objektiv = lens
polarisierender Strahlenteiler = polarizing beam splitter
Phasenplatte = phase disk

fig. 17: optical scanner scanning a megnetooptic recording. The Kerr effect is utilized.
magneto-optische Platte = magneooptic disk

fig. 18: Bit allocation by the data compression system ATRAC
Musikkomponenten... = music components, quantization noise in dB
Frequenz in Hz = frequency in Hz
Bandbreite... = bandwidth of the frequency bands
Signalkomponenten = signal components
Quantisierungsgeräusch = quantization noise

fig. 19: With ATRAC time blocks with different lengths are created. Examples shown here for time slots of 11.6, 2.9 and 1.45 ms
Zeit = time
Frequenz = frequency

fig. 20: The cooperation of functional groups in the ATRAC coder. Modified Discrete Cosine Transform in the high (H), medium (M) and low (L) frequency range
Aufteilungsfilter = splitting filter
Audiosignaleingang = audio signal input
Zeitverzögerung = time delay
Wahl... = selection of signal dependant processing block length
Bereiche = sections

fig. 21: recording principle of the MD
Ursprungs... = initial magnetization of the layer
äußeres Magnetfeld = external magnetic field
aufgezeichentes Bit = recorded bit

fig. 22: principle of the magnetic field modulation. The laser is switched on constantly during recording, the magnetic field is repolarized according to the impulse sequence to be recorded.
Bewegungsrichtung... = dirction of movement of the track
Aufzeichnungskopf = recording head
Aufzeichnungssignal = recording signal
neu = new
alt = old
aufzeichenbare... = recordable MD cross-section
Objektiv = lens

fig. 23: block error rate with magnetic field modulation (external magnetic field +/- 15.6kA/m)
Blockfehlerrate = block error rate
Lineargeschwindigkeit = linear velocity

fig. 24: comparison of recorded tracks. In the view from atop significant changes of the signal recorded with laser modulation are obvious (bottom)
Magnetfeldmodulation = magnetic field modulation
Strahlquerschnitt = cross-section of beam
hohe Leistung = high output
niedrige... = low...
deformierter... = deformed beam
Aufzeichnungsspur = recording track
geringe... = minor change of the shape of the recorded signal
beträchtliche... = significant...
Unterschiede... = differences seen from atop