US05222189Low time-delay transform coder, decoder, and encoder/decoder for high-quality audio
AssigneeDolby Laboratories Licensing Corporation
Assign./FiledJune 22, 1993/ Sept. 26, 1990
InventorsFielder; Loius D.
SummaryHigh quality audio at 128kbps with a very short block size (128 samples). Again, considerable overlap (read: boilerplate) with previous Dolby patents.
AbstractA low bit-rate (192 kBits per second) transform encoder/decoder system (44.1 kHz or 48 kHz sampling rate) for high-quality music applications employs short time-domain sample blocks (128 samples/block) so that the system signal propagation delay is short enough for real-time aural feedback to a human operator. Carefully designed pairs of analysis/synthesis windows are used to achieve sufficient transform frequency selectivity despite the use of short sample blocks. A synthesis window in the decoder has characteristics such that the product of its response and that of an analysis window in the encoder produces a composite response which sums to unity for two adjacent overlapped sample blocks. Adjacent time-domain signal samples blocks are overlapped and added to cancel the effects of the analysis and synthesis windows. A technique is provided for deriving suitable analysis/synthesis window pairs. In the encoder, a discrete transform having a function equivalent to the alternate application of a modified Discrete Cosine Transform and a modified Discrete Sine Transform according to the Time Domain Aliasing Cancellation technique or, alternatively, a Discrete Fourier Transform is used to generate frequency-domain transform coefficients. The transform coefficients are nonuniformly quantized by assigning a fixed number of bits and a variable number of bits determined adaptively based on psychoacoustic masking. A technique is described for assigning the fixed bit and adaptive bit allocations. The transmission of side information regarding adaptively allocated bits is not required. Error codes and protected data may be scattered throughout formatted frame outputs from the encoder in order to reduce sensitivity to noise bursts.